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फाह्यान द्वारा वर्णित भारत की सामाजिक एवं धार्मिक स्थिति का संक्षिप्त वर्णन कीजिए।

फाह्यान द्वारा वर्णित भारत की सामाजिक एवं धार्मिक स्थिति का संक्षिप्त वर्णन कीजिए। Describe briefly the Social and religious condition of India as narrated by Fa-hian.
(12) लोगों की दान प्रवृत्ति- “राजा और जनता दोनों मंदिर बनवाते हैं और भूदान करते हैं। देश में परोपकारी संस्थाएँ अनेक हैं। लोग सड़कों के किनारे और अन्यत्र दानशालाएँ बनवाते हैं जहाँ मंत्रियों और भिक्षुओं के खाने-पीने और सोने का प्रबन्ध रहता है।” जब भिक्षु वार्षिकी अग्रहार पा जाते हैं तब सेठ ब्राह्मण लोग वस्त्र तथा उपहार बाँटते हैं। भिक्षु उन्हें लेकर यथा भाग भुक्त करते हैं। बुद्ध के बोधि प्राप्त करने से ही यह रीति आचार व्यवहार और नियम अविच्छिन्न रूप में निरन्तर चले आ रहे हैं। देश में धनी व्यक्तियों में औषधालय बनवाये थे । यहाँ निर्धन निराश्रित विधवायें एवं अंगहीन व्यक्ति नि:शुल्क चिकित्सा प्राप्त करते थे। वहाँ उन्हें भोजन भी दिया जाता था।”
| (13) कान्यकुब्ज नगर-  “कान्यकुब्ज नगर गंगा के किनारे स्थित था। यहाँ दो बौद्ध मठ थे दोनों ही हीनयान सम्प्रदाय के थे। नगर के पश्चिम की ओर 6 अथवा 7 मील चलन के उपरान्त गंगा के किनारे वह स्थ…

फाह्यान द्वारा उल्लिखित भारतीय परिस्थितियों का संक्षिप्त वर्णन कीजिए।

फाह्यान द्वारा उल्लिखित भारतीय परिस्थितियों का संक्षिप्त वर्णन कीजिए। फाह्यान (399-414)- फाह्यान एक चीनी यात्री था। उसके बचपन का नाम कुंग था। वह जब 10 वर्ष का ही था कि पिता का साया उसके सिर से उठ गया। उसकी माता भी शीघ्र ही परलोक सिधारी। जिस समय कुंग ने प्रव्रज्या ग्रहण की उसी समय से उसका नाम फाह्यान (धर्म आचार्य) पड़ा। वह चन्द्रगुप्त द्वितीय के शासनकाल में भारत आया। था वह भारत में लगभग 6 वर्षों तक रहा, वह बौद्ध था तथा भारतवर्ष से कुछ ऐसे बौद्ध ग्रंथ (विनयपिटक) ले जाने के लिए भारत आया था जो उसके देश में अधूरा तथा क्रम भ्रष्ट था। वह चीन से स्थल मार्ग से खोतान, यारकन्द, पेशावर, तक्षशिला होता हुआ कपिलवस्तु, कुशीनगर तथा बाद में पाटलिपुत्र पहुँचा। वहाँ कुछ वर्षों तक रहने के बाद लुम्बिनी, वैशाली तथा नालन्दा गया। वापसी में वह समुद्री मार्ग के रास्ते से ताम्र लिप्ति से श्री लंका तथा वहा से जावा होते हुये चीन पहुँचा था। उसने अपनी यात्रा के दौरान लगभग 30 देशों का भ्रमण किया। चीन से चलकर उसे भारत पहुँचने और वहाँ से अपने देश वापिस लौटने में लगभग 15 वर्ष का समय लगा। उसने अपनी यात्रा का वर्णन चीन लौ…

ह्वेनसांग के विवरणों में राजनीतिक झांकी पर संक्षिप्त टिप्पणी लिखो।

ह्वेनसांग के विवरणों में राजनीतिक झांकी पर संक्षिप्त टिप्पणी लिखो। Write a short note on political gleanings from the Accounts of Hiuen-t-sang. अथवा युवानच्चांग द्वारा वर्णित भारत का संक्षिप्त विवरण दीजिए।
Deseribe briefly the conditions of India as narrated by hyuan chwang.
अथवा ह्वेनसांग कौन था? उसने हर्ष और उसके समय के विषय में क्या वर्णन छोड़ा है?
Who was Hiuen t sang? What discription has. he lift about harsha and his time.
ह्वेनसांग ने भारतीय शिक्षा पद्धति, प्रचलित लिपि, भाषा आदि के बारे में विस्तृत विवरण देते हुये लिखा है कि भारत में शिक्षा धार्मिक थी और उसे विहारों में दिया जाता था। अधिकतर पुस्तकें लिखी हुई थीं परन्तु वेदों को जुबानी याद किया जाता था और उन्हें पत्तों या कागज पर नहीं लिखा जाता था। भारत में प्रचलित लिपि को ब्राह्मी लिपि कहा जाता था क्योंकि उसकी उत्पत्ति ब्रह्मा से हुई मानी जाती थी । संस्कृत पढ़े लिखों की भाषा थी। उसका व्याकरण कठोर नियमों में बँधा हुआ था । विद्यार्थी 9 वर्ष की आयु से लेकर 30 वर्ष की आयु तक विद्या अध्ययन करते थे। अध्यापकों को विद्यार्थी गुरु दक्षि…

गुप्त साम्राज्य के पतन के कारणों का विश्लेषण कीजिए।

गुप्त साम्राज्य के पतन के कारणों का विश्लेषण कीजिए। गप्तकाल के शासकों का शासन काल लगभग 275 ई. से 550तक रहा। इस कालावधि में समुदगुप्त, चन्द्रगुप्त द्वितीय तथा स्कन्दगुप्त जैसे पराक्रमी सम्राटों ने अपने विशाल साम्राज्य को अक्षुण्ण बनाये रखा और आन्तरिक विद्रोहों और बाह्य आक्रमणों से राज्य और शासन को क्षति नहीं पहुंचने दी । किन्तु स्कन्दगुप्त के बाद गुप्त साम्राज्य के पतन और पराभव की प्रक्रिया आरम्भ हो गई और सुदूरस्थ प्रान्तपति और सामन्त अपना अपना स्वतन्त्र शासन स्थापित करने लगे । यद्यपि बुद्ध गुप्त ने इस पतन की प्रक्रिया को रोकने का प्रयास किया परन्तु वह भी असफल रहा। विसंगठन एवं ह्रस की विविध प्रवृत्तियाँ क्रियाशील होने लगी तथा विषम परिस्थितियों एवं जटिल समस्याओं के फलस्वरूप गुप्तकाल का विनाश हुआ। यह अध: पतन आकस्मिक नहीं था। अतः इस क्रमिक विनाश के कुछ कारण तो आन्तरिक थे । और कुछ बाह्य । इस सम्बंध में डॉ. उपेन्द्र ठाकुर लिखते हैं कि “यह सही है। कि स्कन्दगुप्त के शौर्य एवं पराक्रम के कारण विध्वंसकारी शक्तियाँ कुछ समय के लिए शान्त कर दी गई किन्तु उसकी मृत्यु के पश्चात् एक बार फिर नये सिरे स…

No Quattrocchi ‘mama’ or Michel uncle in our defence deals, says Narendra Modi as he attacks Congress over Rafale deal

"I'd like to understand from your Congress, is why they're so agitated?   As from the mining prices getting done from the BJP authorities, there clearly was no more Quattrocchi ma-ma  or Spiritual Michel uncle," explained Mr. Modi.


Attacking the Congress for questioning the Supreme Court verdict,'' Mr. Modi explained that the get together was"producing a feeling of disbelief" toward the judiciary, also inside their publication much the apex court had been"a liar".


He explained that there have been just two rising narratives from the united states -- just one who stood for"security and truth" for example their government, that had been attempting to raise the would of this army and also the across the opposite hand, usually the one that stood people who"would like to weaken the nation at any charge".In cases of domestic safety, the demands of this military and honor of jawans, '' the BJP federal government simply m…

Projects worth ₹ 44.6k crore underway for rail connectivity to ports

IPRCL has Just Taken up 3 2 Tasks Value $18,253 crore Around nine Key ports, Where eight Tasks Are completed



The state said also, 2 3 railroad connectivity jobs values $24,877 crore diagnosed underneath Sagarmala happen to be consumed from the Ministry of Railwaysout which seven jobs constituting $ 2,491 crore investment decision have now been successfully completed.
IPRCL has just taken on 3 2 projects value $18,253 crore around nine big vents, which 8 tasks value $175 crore are successfully completed, '' a transport Ministry official claimed.

This Is Particularly important because the brand new railroad line will probably pass throughout the Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor branches of Igatpuri, Nashik and also Sinnar; both Pune along with Khed; along with Dhule along with Nardana.





"an overall total of fifty two projects by having a cost of 44,605 crore come at a variety of levels of execution by those bureaus, whereas 18 initiatives are finished," the state claimed.
Sa…

Volcano erupts in Indonesia

Mount Soputan is among 129 active volcanoes at Indonesia that is determined by a exposed quake-hit zone known as"that the Pacific Ring of Fire".



An volcano erupted from Indonesia's North Sulawesi state on Sunday, spewing a pillar of ash measuring 7.5 kilometers into the skies, '' a tragedy agency officer mentioned.
Ashes ended up distributed in west west and west south west of this crater and smallish tremors jolted the location.
Mount Soputan dove two --first at 7.43 a.m. and the moment in 8.57 7.43, a bureau spokesman told Xinhua news bureau.



"In expecting the sexy ash from slipping to the entirety of this volcano and also escapes from trendy lava, then the area is banned from using pursuits in the radius of 4 kilometers out of the crater, also to its area in south of this crater without a go--zone was announced at 6.5 kilometers," the spokesman claimed.

OTHER STATES Noted yoga exponent Geeta Iyengar, daughter of Yogacharya B.K.S. Iyengar, passes away

"Geetaji's departure will come as a jolt to us...she had been a very energetic man and has been the moving power supporting the 10-day pragmatic yoga exposition to indicate that the Yogacharya's arrival centenary.  She took classes in the event," explained Shael Sharma, among of Yogacharya's disciples.




Adhering closely with her dad's increased exposure of ancient principles and sources methods of yoga, she shortly appeared outside of their Yogacharya's shadow to disperse the'Iyengar new' in states around the world.


Her re-treats combined strict schooling with compassion and humour.  They targeted toward a motto within their body and also your head and regularly surpassed the asanas, '' the pranayama and only therapeutic instruction to comprise chanting and Sanskrit pronunciation.


She's survived by her own brother Prashant along with her 4 sisters.  Her funeral will be to happen in the metropolis's Vaikunth crematorium in the future Su…

Govt. notifies rules for in-flight, maritime mobile phone services

Indian and Overseas airlines and Delivery Companies Working from the United Kingdom Might Provide Inflight and Marine Information and data services in Venture with an Authentic Indian telecom Permit holderEven the IFMC products and services will probably be triggered when the air craft accomplishes the absolute minimum elevation of 3,000 metres in Indian air space to prevent interference with terrestrial cell programs.



The in flight and marine connectivity (IFMC) might be supplied using telephony networks on the earth in addition to applying satellites.

The agencies might be supplied by an legal telecom permit holder at India via national and overseas tanks using consent of their division of room, '' it also said.
Indian and overseas air companies and delivery companies working inside the united kingdom might offer in flight and marine voice and information companies in partnership having a legal Indian telecom permit holder.
"just in the event of satellite process to offerin…

Anand Sharma urges SC to recall Rafale judgement, issue contempt of court notice to govt.

The senior Congress leader Declared that the Federal Government was guility of committing Violation of Liberty of Houses of ParliamentSenior Congress chief Anand Sharma on Sunday advocated the Supreme Court to remember its Rafale decision and dilemma contempt of court and perjury finds into the us government, alleging the Centre had given false info into the apex court docket.



Addressing a media conference in the party headquarters , Mr. Sharma also alleged the police had been guility of committing violation of urgency of Houses of Parliament by asserting the CAG report on Rafale prices was presented for the Public Accounts Committee of Parliament.
Have a peek Prime Minister Narendra Modi and the BJP, the Congress chief stated "they ought to find penance and then have a dip in the sacred Ganges rather than"
"We advocate that the Supreme Court to recall its own conclusion on Rafale and dilemma finds of perjury and contempt of court into this us government," he explaine…

Bhupesh Baghel named Chhattisgarh Chief Minister

He'll take oath in 5 Pm on December 17Mr. Baghel can also be learnt to get amazed with the fundamental government maybe not to buckle under some pressure in Congress veteran Ajit Jogi that finally caused his own (Jogi's) departure.  And, most believethis paved the way to get an even far more combined Congress carrying around the BJP.



Five Days Following the Congress party grabbed the Chhattisgarh polls, the State Congress leader Bhupesh Baghel was called the next Chief Minister.
Though both equally Mr. Singh Deo and also Mr. Sahu ended up contenders to its top article, the Congress honored Mr. Baghel for directing the social gathering by some rather difficult instances after having a mortal Naxal assault in 2013 wiped from the full Congress direction in Chhattisgarh.

All of the a few Congress authorities in Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Rajasthan will accept oath on Monday, 1 another and just about every swearing in are a series of Opposition unity as pioneers from some other …

Who is Bhupesh Baghel?

All you Should Know Concerning Chhattisgarh's Brand New Chief Minister

After Chhattisgarh had been shaped, that he had been the Very First Minister for Earnings, General Public Health Engineering and also Relief Operate until 2003. 



Back in 2008 Meeting elections,'' he also missing in Patan. 
Produced on August 2 3, 1961,'' Bhupesh Baghel, was holding their state celebration principal article since oct 2 4.  From the Meeting of 2018, he had been chosen from Patan.




Bhupesh Baghel called Chhattisgarh Chief Minister
Mr. Baghel started off his political career below the assistance of this overdue Chandulal Chandrakar from early 1980s.  He even held this article of Vicepresident of both MP Youth Congress at 199495.
This had been declared in the Congress Legislature Party assembly in Raipur.

Back in December 1998he had been appointed the Minister of State for General Public Grievance from the Digvijay Singh cupboard.
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India welcomes resolution of political crisis in Sri Lanka

MEA Claims That the Settlement of These Governmental Dilemmas Has Been a Manifestation of This Adulthood Exhibited with political Powers "as being a near neighbour and authentic good friend, India welcomes the settlement of this governmental position at SriLanka.  This really is a manifestation of this adulthood exhibited with political powers, and of their durability of sri-lankan democracy as well as its own associations," MEA Spokesperson Raveesh Kumar explained.
He explained India stays devoted to carrying forward its people-oriented development endeavors in SriLanka.




India on Sunday welcomed the settlement of this governmental catastrophe in SriLanka and exuded optimism that relationships between both states will still continue to go ahead within a up trajectory.

His first re appointment includes each day soon after previous strong-man Mahinda Rajapaksa, that had been put in as Prime Minister from President Sirisena, stepped Saturdayafter two key Supreme Court selections f…

Six killed in blast in former minister’s sugar factory in Karnataka

Six men had been murdered and at three seriously Hurt from the explosion at Nirani Sugar Manufacturing Facility, possessed by Previous Union Murugesh Nirani, at Kuloli village of Mudhol taluk at Jamkhandi, Karnataka, respectively on Sunday.  The authorities has formally set the death toll .
The explosion happened at approximately 12.30 p.m.
Although origin of the explosion is not yet been discovered, Mr. Nirani informed media people which the origin is supposed to become the collapse of their security valve.  As stated by him, approximately 8 workers do the job at an change from the machine commonly.  But, it's uncertain how a number people were within the system during the good time of burst.
Based on stories, a significant explosion happened in the methane manufacturing component of this mill at all around 12:30 p.m..  The explosion was so large adequate to twist on the multi-floor construction to rubble immediately, equaling substantial bits of concrete and metal throughout the re…

Mastercard says will start deleting data of Indian cardholders from global servers; warns of impact

The RBI issued a new Law requiring Obligations Organizations to save All of Advice about Trades Between Indians Entirely on Personal Computers from the Nation In a discussion using PTI,'' Porush Singh,'' India and also Division President, South Asia,'' MasterCard, mentioned that the business is functioning in more than 200 states, also that no where else it's was requested to delete info in servers that are global.

The elderly Mastercard official, but added the provider has additionally advised the fundamental bank in regards to the effect of info deletion.

Mr. Singh farther mentioned deletion of info isn't an easy course of action like"pressing on a button".
"That really is only because people are able to ask you for. . .dispute the trades, which all-in course of action... it takes a few people, numerous stakeholders.  We've granted them (RBI) a proposition and we're awaiting them to support," he explained.




When requested in cas…

Karnataka temple ‘prasada’ incident: Death toll rises to 13

The Status of more patients on life Care Has Been Reported to Function as Acute 2 females, that were fighting for lifetime after swallowing the'prasada' in Kichugatti Maramma Temple in Sulawadi village at Chamarajnagar district, also died here on Sunday.  The amount of fatalities from the episode  has become 1 3.



An overall total of sixty six patients ended up treated eight personal colleges and 28 at K r healthcare facility.


Salamma and Maheshwari, the two elderly approximately 3-5 decades and sailors of both MJ Doddi, neglected to answer treatment method.  The status of more patients life care has been reported to become more acute.
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Mr. Patil reported the illness of 6 patients had been believed to be more critical however the others had been medicated at government in addition to private associations were still stable.

He also said that his section had delivered types of their"educated'prasada" along with many others to several bureaus, for example CFTR…

Hope no one will question me about my final losses anymore: Sindhu

Following losing 7 Consecutive summit clashes, Sindhu Be at Japan's Nozomi Okuhara in the Globe Tour FinalsRequested about her goals for the next calendar year, Sindhu mentioned:"Next year it's going to soon be Olympic eligibility year plus we must maintain ourself healthy and plans that tournaments to engage in plus we will possess Malaysia and Indonesia coming next calendar year "

"I'd enjoy as soon as since I hope.  We possess the league (leading badminton League), therefore I'll go right to this and that I expect perform effectively there that would be around for year"

"There's been quite a bit of discussion of her shedding the finals and that I presume that atleast not to anyone except to get Sindhu's intellect, I think that it is crucial she lost from the ultimate having a in depth enormous triumph," he explained.



Sindhu, who'd lost at the forefront while in the past variant, explained she at times dropped attention througho…

The rise of AI would result in a huge split in the world,' says historian Yuval Noah Harari

To express that Yuval Noah Harari's past few novels are a international success is a understatement.  The writer of 2014 Best-seller Sapiens: a Short History of Human Kind (interpreted in over 4-5 languages and marketed over several thousand copies globally ), Homo Deus: a Short History of Tomorrow (20-16 ), along with 2 1 Courses for your 21stcentury (2018), H AS beenendorsed from Barack Obama, Bill Gates and also Mark Zuckerberg and known called the"genius of this liberal elites" from the press.  At an round-table discussion with all the media before sending the Penguin yearly Lecture 2018 at Mumbai on Sunday, the Israeli historian announced he has governmental abilities nor ' are his novels in regards to the instantaneous political of almost any nation.  "I cannot afford special political information into some govt or howto execute insurance policies," he explained.  "However, exactly what I take to to accomplish is sway the macro schedule of many d…

All England Championships will be our target next year: Gopichand

Gopichand has been the past Indian to secure against the All England Championship at 2001, accomplishing the coveted accomplishment after 2 1 decades of Prakash Padukone's 1980 name.
"All of us deserve any equilibrium.  In addition, we provide the season end match, and it really is really a briefer arrangement although it definitely going to become more fun and intense," he included.



Gopichand was likewise impressed with all the operation of both Sameer Verma, who wasn't merely qualified to get its season-ending championship following defending his name at Syed Modi but in addition arrived in touching part of causing it into the summit battle.
"How she's got played with she has defeated players of all caliber.   She completes up the entire year on the really high.  She's won awards from the significant occasions and which had been the aim that this calendar year," he explained.
"I'm also amazed by the way Sameer performed with the whole tournam…

Kanishka and his achievements

Kanishka and his achievements
कनिष्क–भारत के कुषाणवंशी शासकों में कनिष्क को सबसे अधिक शक्तिशाली और महत्त्वपूर्ण माना जाता है। कनिष्क विम कदफिस की मृत्यु के पश्चात् सबसे अधिक प्रसिद्धि पाने वाला शासक था। इसी वंश में आगे चलकर हुविष्क और वासुदेव के मध्य भी कनिष्क नामक एक राजा हुआ था। अतः उससे अलग प्रमाणित करने के लिए इसे कनिष्क प्रथम भी कहा जाता है। प्रसिद्ध इतिहासकार मार्शल का मत है कि 'विम कदफिस के पश्चात् कुषाण साम्राज्य में कुछ अव्यवस्था उत्पन्न हो गयी । इस काल में एक या , गर्वनरों ने सोटर मेगस के नाम से भारत में राज्य किया। विम कदफिस के लगभग 50 बाद कनिष्क प्रथम का उदय हुआ।

विम कदफिस और कनिष्क प्रथम का पारस्परिक सम्ल क्या था? इस सम्बन्ध में कोई निश्चित तथ्य उपलब्ध नहीं है। दुर्भाग्य से हमें उसका अधिक वृतान्त ज्ञात नहीं है लेकिन इसमें कोई सन्देह नहीं है कि कुषाण सम्राटों में वह महान था। कनिष्क प्रथम के कारण ही कुषाण वंश का भारत के सांस्कृतिक एवं राजनीतिक इतिहास में महत्त्वपूर्ण स्थान है। कनिष्क के राज्यारोहण की तिथि अभी तक सन्देहास्पद है। प्रथम शताब्दी ई.पू. से तृतीय शताब्दी तक उस…